This paper addresses the problem of estimating the rendering time for a real-time simulation. We study different
factors that contribute to the rendering time in order to develop a framework for rendering time estimation. Given
a viewpoint (or view cell) and a list of potentially visible objects, we propose several algorithms that can give
reasonable upper limits for the rendering time on consumer hardware. This paper also discusses several implementation
issues and design choices that are necessary to make the rendering time predictable. Finally, we lay
out two extensions to current rendering hardware which would allow implementing a system with constant frame
Videos in DivX format.
Ghosting: demonstrates effect of ghosting (~3MB).
Frame skips: demonstrates effects of frame skips in a city scene (~22B).
Conditional branching: demonstrates effects of the conditional branching extension proposed in the paper (~138MB).